It Began in 3D
The founders, Drs. Stehno-Bittel and Ramachandran first recognized the importance of culturing cells in 3D rather than on a monolayer in a petri dish and were the first to screen for new drugs using 3D clusters of cells in a high throughput format. Next, they targeted those 3D cell clusters to treat diseases such as diabetes, but realized that they needed a way to protect the cells from immune attack and thus the innovation of CSS.
CSS was so novel of a concept that its first patent was issued within a year of filing and now its patent portfolio has been fully issued in many countries around the world. Likarda also maintains a series of patents on 3D cell clusters and technologies. The team continues to develop innovative approaches, IP, and patents on new formulations, new uses for CSS products, and novel manufacturing equipment.